Categories
Deploy360 IPv6

Google buys a /12 IPv4 Address Block

As per the RIPE Stat – BGPlay, Merit Network Inc (AS237) withdrew its advertisement of 35.192.0.0/11 on 18 October 2016. It didn’t ring any bells because they have plenty of IPv4 address space, but on 21 March 2017, ARIN announced that 35.192.0.0/12 has been added to the transferred list.

As no-one was advertising this block on the Internet, it was unclear who’d bought such a big block and at what price. On 29 April 2017, Andree Toonk (founder of BGPMon) tweeted about this announcement and surprisingly enough it was announced by Google.

More digging in RIPE Stat – BGPlay suggests that Google started announcing 35.192.0.0/13, 35.200.0.0/14, 35.204.0.0/15 from AS15169 on 12 April 2017. As per the Whois information, Google has allocated this block for Google Cloud customers *** The IP addresses under this Org-ID are in use by Google Cloud customers ***

This transaction of more than a million IPv4 addresses started a debate why Google had to make this move when their IPv6 stats suggest that IPv6 deployment is increasing worldwide and most of their services are already available through IPv6.

The above graph from the Google IPv6 Statistics shows a growth of almost 7% in the last 12 months. This looks great but is that enough? The answer is of course not. Other statistics from the APNIC IPv6 Measurement Map show another side of IPv6 deployment status around the world. It is much better than previous years and it’s improving every month but is still not close to satisfactory.

Google has to serve its customers all around the world and if those customers don’t have IPv6 then they need to give them the option of IPv4. As rightly commented by Mark Smith on the AusNOG mailing list,

“The reason why I think Google buying the /12 is significant, despite Google services being thoroughly IPv6 enabled for quite a while, they’re not buying those IPv4 addresses to solve their own lack of IPv6 deployment. They’re trying to overcome others lack of IPv6 deployment, and paying a large amount of money to mostly solve somebody else’s problem rather than their own. I can only see them and others in a similar situation tolerating those costs for a limited time. They have a financial motivation to actively minimise or avoid those costs sooner rather than later.”

To summarise the discussion, whether it’s Google or any other major cloud or content provider, they can’t serve you IPv4 forever and may give up on you sooner or later. If you are an ISP not providing IPv6 to their customers then your customer will move to another ISP, and this is only a matter of time.

If you want to find out more about how to deploy IPv6 in your network, you can check out our IPv6 resources, attend any of our upcoming IPv6 training (workshop/tutorial) around the world, or reach out to us and let us know how can we help.

Categories
IPv6

Google buys a /12 IPv4 Address Block

As per the RIPE Stat – BGPlay, Merit Network Inc (AS237) withdrew its advertisement of 35.192.0.0/11 on 18 October 2016. It didn’t ring any bells because they have plenty of IPv4 address space, but on 21 March 2017, ARIN announced that 35.192.0.0/12 has been added to the transferred list.

As no-one was advertising this block on the Internet, it was unclear who’d bought such a big block and at what price. On 29 April 2017, Andree Toonk (founder of BGPMon) tweeted about this announcement and surprisingly enough it was announced by Google.

More digging in RIPE Stat – BGPlay suggests that Google started announcing 35.192.0.0/13, 35.200.0.0/14, 35.204.0.0/15 from AS15169 on 12 April 2017. As per the Whois information, Google has allocated this block for Google Cloud customers *** The IP addresses under this Org-ID are in use by Google Cloud customers ***

This transaction of more than a million IPv4 addresses started a debate why Google had to make this move when their IPv6 stats suggest that IPv6 deployment is increasing worldwide and most of their services are already available through IPv6.

The above graph from the Google IPv6 Statistics shows a growth of almost 7% in the last 12 months. This looks great but is that enough? The answer is of course not. Other statistics from the APNIC IPv6 Measurement Map show another side of IPv6 deployment status around the world. It is much better than previous years and it’s improving every month but is still not close to satisfactory.

Google has to serve its customers all around the world and if those customers don’t have IPv6 then they need to give them the option of IPv4. As rightly commented by Mark Smith on the AusNOG mailing list,

“The reason why I think Google buying the /12 is significant, despite Google services being thoroughly IPv6 enabled for quite a while, they’re not buying those IPv4 addresses to solve their own lack of IPv6 deployment. They’re trying to overcome others lack of IPv6 deployment, and paying a large amount of money to mostly solve somebody else’s problem rather than their own. I can only see them and others in a similar situation tolerating those costs for a limited time. They have a financial motivation to actively minimise or avoid those costs sooner rather than later.”

To summarise the discussion, whether it’s Google or any other major cloud or content provider, they can’t serve you IPv4 forever and may give up on you sooner or later. If you are an ISP not providing IPv6 to their customers then your customer will move to another ISP, and this is only a matter of time.

If you want to find out more about how to deploy IPv6 in your network, you can check out our IPv6 resources, attend any of our upcoming IPv6 training (workshop/tutorial) around the world, or reach out to us and let us know how can we help.

Categories
Deploy360 Events

The Network Forensics problem of IPv4

Although not directly on the subject IPv6, we absolutely need to draw your attention to a great presentation from Geoff Huston (APNIC) on Forensic Tracing in the Internet during APRICOT 2017. This relates to the pervasive use of Carrier Grade NATs as a means of extending the useable life of IPv4 on the Internet, and the implications for metadata record keeping and tracing users.

As we know, the pools of IPv4 addresses are close to depletion, but around 90% of the Internet is still only accessible via IPv4. As a result, Carrier-Grade NAT (CGN) has been widely implemented whereby private IPv4 address space is used in conjunction with a limited number of public IPv4 addresses in order to conserve public IPv4 address space. In other words, many customers are sharing a single public IPv4 address that will usually also change over a given time period.

If you therefore wish to trace from where traffic has originated from, then you need to maintain an extensive logging system keeping records on source IP addresses, source port addresses, along with dates/times. CGN bindings are formed for every unique TCP and UDP session, which can mean 150-450 bytes per connection and 33-216,000 connections per subscriber each day, resulting in the need to log 5-96 MB of data. For 1 million subscribers, this will generate up to 1 PB of data per month!

It’s becoming ever more complex to handle this information, and even if it’s possible to maintain comprehensive records, subscribers are also likely to be operating NATs and the trace will stop at these edge points. Bear in mind that some operators are also running out of private IPv4 address space on individual subnets, and are therefore needing to implement layers of CGNs.

Furthermore, it’s becoming increasingly difficult to analyse traffic flows as users and applications resort to encryption, sessions are split over multiple paths and access technologies (e.g. cellular, wifi), and even over a combination of IPv4 and IPv6.

So whilst Law Enforcement Agencies have traditionally focused on the network as the point of interception and tracing, and have introduced laws to mandate ever more extensive logging, the reality is that IPv4 addresses are increasing losing coherent meaning in terms of end party identification.

This might be interpreted that the choice is between ever more complicated and expensive record keeping systems, or transitioning to IPv6. Of course, some may see obfuscation through IPv4 as a positive benefit, but the fact remains that IPv4 is increasingly less scalable and becoming more complex to manage. IPv6 brings many other advantages with it, and confidentiality can still be maintained by using platforms and applications that support this.

You can watch Geoff’s presentation during the Network Security session on YouTube.

And if you’re interested in deploying IPv6 after this, then please see our Start Here page for more information!

Categories
Deploy360 IPv6 Mutually Agreed Norms for Routing Security (MANRS)

Fruitful discussions at APRICOT

APRICOT 2016The Internet Society including Deploy360 was in attendance at APRICOT 2016 which was held from 15-26 February 2016 at the SkyCity Convention Centre in Auckland, New Zealand. This is the annual get together of the network operations community in the Asia-Pacific region, and also incorporates meetings of the APNIC, APStar, APTLD and APIX participants, so definitely worthwhile attending.

There were a number of presentations with relevance to Deploy360 topics that are worth highlighting. First up, the session on IPv4 exhaustion and the state of the transfer market and the presentations from Alain Durand (ICANN), Geoff Huston (APNIC) and John Curran (ARIN). The figures for IPv4 address transfers clearly show a dramatic increase since mid-2015 as the remaining pool of IPv4 addresses is depleted, with the majority of transfers being registered by the largest LIRs. There has also been a significant transfer of legacy (i.e. pre-1997) addresses with the substantive majority being larger block sizes between /11 and /16, indicating that the economics are now favouring transfers from organisations with surplus addresses.

This is is backed up with data provided by Sandra Brown (IPv4 Market Group) and Gabe Fried (Hilco Streambank) who’ve seen substantial activity since the exhaustion of the ARIN IPv4 address pool. More IPv4 space had recently come onto the market, facilitated by the introduction of RIPE Inter-RIR transfers that had equalised prices to somewhere around USD 7-12 per IP address, but prices were again expected to rise in the near future. This was also because the higher prices per address paid for the smaller blocks was encouraging the break-up of larger blocks, with the corresponding consequences for the global routing table.

APRICOT 2016 Opening PlenaryIn fact, there is empirical evidence this is happening as Geoff Huston (APNIC) showed during his presentation on routing during the closing plenary. Despite the IPv4 address pool approaching exhaustion, the number of entries in the global routing table (default free zone) continues to grow at around 50,000 per year, with the total number of entries approaching 600,000.

However, the average age of addresses being announced has increased substantially in recent years, suggesting that formerly allocated but unused address space is being pressed into service. For example, only 2% of addresses announced in 2010 were allocated over 20 years ago, but this rose to 33% in 2015. In addition, the average size of routing advertisements has decreased from around 7,000 in 2010 to under 5,000 in 2015, even though growth in the total number of advertised IPv4 addresses shows signs of slowing.

By way of comparison, Geoff also showed that the number of IPv6 entries in the global routing table was growing at around 6,000 per year, with the total number of entries currently around 27,000. The number of IPv6 AS numbers is growing at about half the rate of those for IPv4, so whilst IPv6 remains a long way behind, the IPv6 routing table is growing at a relatively faster rate.

So the message is that IPv4 addresses really are running out, and the market is realising that it’s going to cost substantial amounts of money to maintain IPv4 in future. It’s also worth checking out the excellent presentation on IPv6 in Mobile Networks from Sunny Yeung (Telstra) who highlighted the reality that mobile networks need to be provisioned with IPv6. He points out there are even insufficient private IPv4 addresses when using Carrier Grade NATs (CGNs) on a global scale, and these complicate communication where private addresses need to be re-used. There is a very real cost to using CGNs, and spending money on interim solutions does not ultimately solve the long-term problems or simplify network operations.

Auckland Sky TowerFor those that might need further convincing, it’s again worth mentioning the reprised presentation earlier in the conference on IPv6 performance by Geoff Huston. We already highlighted this in our report on RIPE 71, but his analysis suggests that if you can establish a connection then IPv4 and IPv6 appear to have comparable performance, even though the odds of establishing the connection still currently favour IPv4. One interesting caveat though, is there appears to be greater instability in IPv6 BGP routing than in IPv4, although this mostly affects only a very small number of users. The reasons for this is something to investigate further.

The current state of IPv6 deployment was discussed in more detail during the IPv6 Readiness Measurement BoF, which included a presentation from Deploy360’s Kevin Meynell on the Internet Society’s State of IPv6 Readiness. In this session, several Regional and National Internet Registries provided the IPv6 state-of-play in their respective jurisdictions, with some additional perspective offered by individual organisations.

Last but not least, Kevin also presented on the Deploy360, BCOP and MANRS work during the ISOC@APRICOT session, as well as participating in the ‘Tech Girls Get Together’ session to relate his  inspirations and influences on how and why he got into networking in the first place. The goals of Deploy360 are to encourage real-world deployment of Internet technologies, but it’s important not to forget the next generation of network engineers too.

If all this inspires or persuades you to transition your networks, devices and applications to IPv6, then please see our Start Here page for more information!

Categories
Deploy360 IPv6

IPv4 Exhaustion Gets Real – Microsoft Runs Out Of U.S. Addresses For Azure Cloud – Time To Move To IPv6!

us ipv4BOOM! IPv4 address exhaustion just hit home really hard for a good number of people.  They set up virtual machines (VMs) in a US region on Microsoft’s Azure Cloud and now suddenly find that when they use those VMs to access other websites they are treated as if they are from a country outside the US.  Why?

Because Microsoft RAN OUT OF IPv4 ADDRESSES from its “U.S.” blocks of IPv4 addresses!

As Microsoft notes in their blog post:

Some Azure customers may have noticed that for a VM deployed in a US region, when they launch a localized page on a web browser it may redirect them to an international site. 

Oops.

They go on to say precisely what we and many others have been warning about for some time:

IPv4 address space has been fully assigned in the United States, meaning there is no additional IPv4 address space available. This requires Microsoft to use the IPv4 address space available to us globally for the addressing of new services. The result is that we will have to use IPv4 address space assigned to a non-US region to address services which may be in a US region.  It is not possible to transfer registration because the IP space is allocated to the registration authorities by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Keep in mind, too, that back in 2011 Microsoft bought 666,624 IPv4 addresses from Nortel for $7.5 million. So they have already been shopping for more IPv4 space in the North American region.

They’re out.  Done.  Finished.

And so all those people wanting to run VMs on Microsoft’s Azure Cloud are suddenly confronting the reality that if they wanted their server to appear as if it came from the US, they can’t!

Sure, their domain name can look like it is a regular address for a US company… but in the underlying IP addressing their server will appear to the rest of the Internet to be in Brazil or some other location based on some of the geographical IP databases.

UPDATE: It is apparently not just Azure Cloud accounts in the US.  Over on Hacker News a commenter indicated that an Azure account in the North Europe datacenter in Dublin, Ireland, is also getting an IP address from Brazil.  I would guess (but don’t know for a fact) that this means Microsoft may be out of European IP addresses, too.

The impact is that servers running in the Azure Cloud (on VMs) may be treated by applications and services running on other servers as if they are outside the U.S. and so they may be given different choices or options than would be given to US servers.  The example shown in Microsoft’s blog post is of a web browser running on a VM connecting to a site and being given a Portuguese web page because the web server thought the incoming connection was coming from Brazil.  Depending upon how strongly the web server being visited serves out pages based on geographic IP data there may or may not be an easy option to get to pages intended for visitors from the US – or it might at least require more steps.   On a more serious note, there may be some sites that might block traffic in their firewalls based on where IP addresses are thought to be coming from – and so while you thought your server was set up “in the U.S.” it could instead wind up on someone’s blocked list.

Somewhat ironically, we wrote just yesterday about the need for cloud providers to get with the IPv6 program – and today we have living proof of WHY cloud providers need to care.

And as we also noted earlier this week, Latin and South America are basically out of IPv4 addresses – so while Microsoft can use some Brazilian IPv4 addresses today, odds are pretty good they won’t be able to get any more!

Here are a couple of other posts about today’s news:

The cold hard reality is that we simply cannot continue to rely on the “experimental” version of the Internet that used IPv4 addresses.  We need to collectively take the leap to the production version of the Internet using IPv6.

There are BILLIONS of people still to come online on the Internet – and there are BILLIONS more devices that we want to put online as part of the “Internet of Things”.  IPv4 simply doesn’t have the necessary number of addresses!

To get started with IPv6, please visit our “Start Here” page to find resources that are focused for your type of organization. And if you don’t find what you need, please let us know!  We are here to help you make the transition!

As Microsoft so vividly showed us today, IPv4 exhaustion is going to increasingly make IT systems more complicated.  It’s time to make the move to IPv6 where we don’t have to worry about address exhaustion – or having to use IP addresses from a different part of the world.

The time for IPv6 is now!

Good discussions on this topic are happening at:

 

Categories
IPv6

IPv4 Exhaustion Gets Real – Microsoft Runs Out Of U.S. Addresses For Azure Cloud – Time To Move To IPv6!

us ipv4BOOM! IPv4 address exhaustion just hit home really hard for a good number of people.  They set up virtual machines (VMs) in a US region on Microsoft’s Azure Cloud and now suddenly find that when they use those VMs to access other websites they are treated as if they are from a country outside the US.  Why?

Because Microsoft RAN OUT OF IPv4 ADDRESSES from its “U.S.” blocks of IPv4 addresses!

As Microsoft notes in their blog post:

Some Azure customers may have noticed that for a VM deployed in a US region, when they launch a localized page on a web browser it may redirect them to an international site. 

Oops.

They go on to say precisely what we and many others have been warning about for some time:

IPv4 address space has been fully assigned in the United States, meaning there is no additional IPv4 address space available. This requires Microsoft to use the IPv4 address space available to us globally for the addressing of new services. The result is that we will have to use IPv4 address space assigned to a non-US region to address services which may be in a US region.  It is not possible to transfer registration because the IP space is allocated to the registration authorities by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority.

Keep in mind, too, that back in 2011 Microsoft bought 666,624 IPv4 addresses from Nortel for $7.5 million. So they have already been shopping for more IPv4 space in the North American region.

They’re out.  Done.  Finished.

And so all those people wanting to run VMs on Microsoft’s Azure Cloud are suddenly confronting the reality that if they wanted their server to appear as if it came from the US, they can’t!

Sure, their domain name can look like it is a regular address for a US company… but in the underlying IP addressing their server will appear to the rest of the Internet to be in Brazil or some other location based on some of the geographical IP databases.

UPDATE: It is apparently not just Azure Cloud accounts in the US.  Over on Hacker News a commenter indicated that an Azure account in the North Europe datacenter in Dublin, Ireland, is also getting an IP address from Brazil.  I would guess (but don’t know for a fact) that this means Microsoft may be out of European IP addresses, too.

The impact is that servers running in the Azure Cloud (on VMs) may be treated by applications and services running on other servers as if they are outside the U.S. and so they may be given different choices or options than would be given to US servers.  The example shown in Microsoft’s blog post is of a web browser running on a VM connecting to a site and being given a Portuguese web page because the web server thought the incoming connection was coming from Brazil.  Depending upon how strongly the web server being visited serves out pages based on geographic IP data there may or may not be an easy option to get to pages intended for visitors from the US – or it might at least require more steps.   On a more serious note, there may be some sites that might block traffic in their firewalls based on where IP addresses are thought to be coming from – and so while you thought your server was set up “in the U.S.” it could instead wind up on someone’s blocked list.

Somewhat ironically, we wrote just yesterday about the need for cloud providers to get with the IPv6 program – and today we have living proof of WHY cloud providers need to care.

And as we also noted earlier this week, Latin and South America are basically out of IPv4 addresses – so while Microsoft can use some Brazilian IPv4 addresses today, odds are pretty good they won’t be able to get any more!

Here are a couple of other posts about today’s news:

The cold hard reality is that we simply cannot continue to rely on the “experimental” version of the Internet that used IPv4 addresses.  We need to collectively take the leap to the production version of the Internet using IPv6.

There are BILLIONS of people still to come online on the Internet – and there are BILLIONS more devices that we want to put online as part of the “Internet of Things”.  IPv4 simply doesn’t have the necessary number of addresses!

To get started with IPv6, please visit our “Start Here” page to find resources that are focused for your type of organization. And if you don’t find what you need, please let us know!  We are here to help you make the transition!

As Microsoft so vividly showed us today, IPv4 exhaustion is going to increasingly make IT systems more complicated.  It’s time to make the move to IPv6 where we don’t have to worry about address exhaustion – or having to use IP addresses from a different part of the world.

The time for IPv6 is now!

Good discussions on this topic are happening at:

 

Categories
IPv6

IPv4 is Really Almost Out – The Time for IPv6 is NOW

On our Deploy360 blog we’ve been documenting the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses in each of the regional registry pools around the world. Yesterday, LACNIC announced that practically speaking there are no more IPv4 addresses available in Latin America and the Caribbean. What this actually means as we documented on our Deploy360 site is that they are down to the final 25% of their last /8 allocation, and are now in a mode of operation where allocations are far more limited and review of applications for new addresses is much more restrictive. It is starting to become impossible to get IPv4 address space using the traditional means around the globe.

As LACNIC CEO Raul Echebarria pointed out, the need for network operators to transition to IPv6 has never been more urgent. There is plenty of IPv6 address space available for anyone who wants to use it and there is more and more IPv6 being deployed in networks around the world. As we document on the World IPv6 Launch site each month, the number of networks with measurable IPv6 deployment continues to increase, and the amount of traffic from those networks to big websites around the world increases steadily as well. It is worthwhile mentioning that the most popular websites – Google, Facebook, YouTube, Yahoo!, and Wikipedia – have been using IPv6 for a couple of years now. We also observed that networks that have IPv6 deployed for their end users see a lot of IPv6 traffic on their network.

Transitioning to IPv6 is very possible and the exhaustion of IPv4 addresses in the LACNIC region just provides us with one more reminder that now is the time to make the transition. Our Deploy360 Programme can help you get started.

Categories
Deploy360 IPv6

Goodbye, IPv4! IANA Starts Allocating Final Address Blocks

ICANN.jpgIPv4 address exhaustion just got more real! In an announcement on Tuesday, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) indicated that they are starting the process of allocating the final available blocks of IPv4 addresses out to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) from the IANA recovered address pool. (ICANN is the operator of IANA.) As the announcement states:

ICANN announced today that it has begun the process of allocating the remaining blocks of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses to the five Regional Internet Registries (RIR). The activation of this procedure was triggered when Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre’s (LACNIC) supply of addresses dropped to below 8 million.

This move signals that the global supply of IPv4 addresses is reaching a critical level. As more and more devices come online, the demand for IP addresses rises, and IPv4 is incapable of supplying enough addresses to facilitate this expansion. ICANN encourages network operators around the globe to adopt IPv6, which allows for the rapid growth of the Internet.

This is it, folks.

We’ve been talking for many years about IPv4 addresses running out.  Now it’s happening.

[NOTE: Back in February 2011, IANA allocated their final IPv4 address blocks from the “free pool” of IPv4 addresses.  IANA then worked with the five RIRs to recover unused IPv4 address blocks and establish the “recovered address pool”. The agreement was that allocations would start from this pool when the first RIR hit its last /9 block of IPv4 addresses, which LACNIC recently did. After this recovered pool has been allocated to RIRs, there simply aren’t any more IPv4 addresses for IANA to give out.]

Yes, there are enough IPv4 addresses in the overall system right now that we’re not running out of addresses TODAY … but we are basically OUT at the top-level.  The final allocations will occur over the next few months as part of the Global Policy for Post Exhaustion IPv4 Allocation Mechanisms by the IANA.

It will be increasingly hard for network operators to get more IPv4 addresses for new customers and new networks.

If you are not yet planning for a transition to IPv6, you really need to get going now! If you want to grow your network, the simplest and easiest path will be to make the move to IPv6.  Check out our “Start Here” pages to learn how you can get going!

DO YOU HAVE A GREAT EXAMPLE OF MOVING A NETWORK OR APPLICATION TO IPv6?  We are seeking IPv6 case studies for our upcoming celebration of the 2nd anniversary of World IPv6 Launch. If you have a great IPv6 story, we’d love to help share that story for others to learn from it. Please let us know.


UPDATE #1 – If you are interested in learning more about how IPv6 adoption is going, check out our list of IPv6 statistics sites.  In particular, look at the World IPv6 Launch measurements, where this month Verizon Wireless crossed over 50% IPv6 for the first time!

UPDATE #2 – There is an excellent discussion thread currently underway on Hacker News about this article.

UPDATE #3 – The Number Resource Organization (NRO) has a statement up on their website.

Categories
IPv6

Goodbye, IPv4! IANA Starts Allocating Final Address Blocks

ICANN.jpgIPv4 address exhaustion just got more real! In an announcement on Tuesday, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) indicated that they are starting the process of allocating the final available blocks of IPv4 addresses out to the Regional Internet Registries (RIRs) from the IANA recovered address pool. (ICANN is the operator of IANA.) As the announcement states:

ICANN announced today that it has begun the process of allocating the remaining blocks of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses to the five Regional Internet Registries (RIR). The activation of this procedure was triggered when Latin America and Caribbean Network Information Centre’s (LACNIC) supply of addresses dropped to below 8 million.

This move signals that the global supply of IPv4 addresses is reaching a critical level. As more and more devices come online, the demand for IP addresses rises, and IPv4 is incapable of supplying enough addresses to facilitate this expansion. ICANN encourages network operators around the globe to adopt IPv6, which allows for the rapid growth of the Internet.

This is it, folks.

We’ve been talking for many years about IPv4 addresses running out.  Now it’s happening.

[NOTE: Back in February 2011, IANA allocated their final IPv4 address blocks from the “free pool” of IPv4 addresses.  IANA then worked with the five RIRs to recover unused IPv4 address blocks and establish the “recovered address pool”. The agreement was that allocations would start from this pool when the first RIR hit its last /9 block of IPv4 addresses, which LACNIC recently did. After this recovered pool has been allocated to RIRs, there simply aren’t any more IPv4 addresses for IANA to give out.]

Yes, there are enough IPv4 addresses in the overall system right now that we’re not running out of addresses TODAY … but we are basically OUT at the top-level.  The final allocations will occur over the next few months as part of the Global Policy for Post Exhaustion IPv4 Allocation Mechanisms by the IANA.

It will be increasingly hard for network operators to get more IPv4 addresses for new customers and new networks.

If you are not yet planning for a transition to IPv6, you really need to get going now! If you want to grow your network, the simplest and easiest path will be to make the move to IPv6.  Check out our “Start Here” pages to learn how you can get going!

DO YOU HAVE A GREAT EXAMPLE OF MOVING A NETWORK OR APPLICATION TO IPv6?  We are seeking IPv6 case studies for our upcoming celebration of the 2nd anniversary of World IPv6 Launch. If you have a great IPv6 story, we’d love to help share that story for others to learn from it. Please let us know.


UPDATE #1 – If you are interested in learning more about how IPv6 adoption is going, check out our list of IPv6 statistics sites.  In particular, look at the World IPv6 Launch measurements, where this month Verizon Wireless crossed over 50% IPv6 for the first time!

UPDATE #2 – There is an excellent discussion thread currently underway on Hacker News about this article.

UPDATE #3 – The Number Resource Organization (NRO) has a statement up on their website.

Categories
IPv6

Time To Get IPv6! ARIN Starts Allocation From Its LAST Major Block Of IPv4 Addresses

ARIN logoSoooo… if you are in North America and have NOT started planning for a migration of your network to IPv6, now would be a REALLY good time to start doing so!  The news comes today from the American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) that they have now started allocating IPv4 addresses from their last contiguous block of IPv4 addresses.

Now, this doesn’t mean that ARIN is out of IPv4 addresses… but it’s getting really close!  Per ARIN’s IPv4 Countdown Plan page, they only have 1.42 /8s left.  Basically, they have 104.x.x.x to allocate out to Internet service providers (ISPs) and then a number of other smaller ranges and then…

Boom.  That’s it!

There will be no more *new* IPv4 addresses available in the US, Canada and many Caribbean and North Atlantic islands.

Existing IPv4 addresses will continue to work just fine, of course, but any new networks or devices seeking to be connected to the public Internet are going to have to re-use existing IPv4 addresses via ugly NAT arrangements – or go IPv6.  So… mobile operators looking to expand and add on more devices.  All the companies looking to bring a zillion more appliances and devices onto the Internet via the “Internet of Things”.  Any expansions into new geographic areas.

We’ve been saying for years that we’d be running out IPv4 addresses… but now it’s actually happening in North America!  (and also in the European and Asia Pacific regions)

It’s time to get going with IPv6!  What are you waiting for?  And how can we help you?

Categories
IPv6

One Year On – IPv6 Deployment Since World IPv6 Launch

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